Received:14.04.2022; Accepted: 02.12.2022; Published on-line: 21.12.2022

Rare neurogenic retinal tumors in adults: morphological features and diagnostic challenges


M. V. Lytvynenko 1, V. V. Alekseeva 2, 3, V. V. Gargin 2, 3, N. V. Neskoromna 1, O. L. Koshelnyk 1, O. V. Artemov 4

1 Odesa National Medical University; Odesa (Ukraine)

2 Kharkiv National Medical University; Kharkiv (Ukraine)

3 Kharkiv International Medical University; Kharkiv (Ukraine)

4 SI "The Filatov Institute of Eye Diseases and Tissue Therapy of the  NAMS of Ukraine"; Odesa (Ukraine)

TO CITE THIS ARTICLE: Lytvynenko MV,  Alekseeva VV,  Gargin VV, Neskoromna  NV,  Koshelnyk OL,  Artemov OV. Rare neurogenic retinal tumors in adults: morphological features and diagnostic challenges. J.ophthalmol.(Ukraine).2022;6:30-34.  http://doi.org/10.31288/oftalmolzh202263034


Background: The histological diagnosis of neurogenic tumors remains a challenge, which may be indicated particularly by the fact that new entities appeared in the new edition of the World Health organization (WHO) classification.

Purpose: To review the histomorphologic and immunohistochemic features of rare variants of neurogenic ocular (retinal) tumors in adults.

Material and Methods: Six rare ocular tumors were selected for the study from all clinical material submitted for pathohistological examination from 2017 to 2020 based on the presence of morphological evidence of neurogenic differentiation.

Results: The study sample of six rare neurogenic retinal tumors in adults was conventionally divided into three types: (1) retinal tumors immunohistochemically similar to cellular  ependymoma, but histologically similar to retinoblastoma; (2) tumors showing no histological pattern characteristic for dictyoma, but the immunohistochemical features of neuroepithelial differentiation; and (3) tumors showing histological patterns similar to medulloepithelioma, but  the immunohistochemical features of glial markers.

Conclusion: Obviously, when dividing these tumors into histogenetic groups, not only the histological structure and immunohistochemical profile, but also tumor location and typical patient age should be taken into account.


Keywords: ocular tumors, histopathology, immunohistochemistry



1.Louis DN, Ohgaki H, Wiestler OD, Cavenee WK, Burger PC, Bernd AJ, et al. The 2007 WHO Classification of tumours of the central nervous system. Acta Neuropathol. 2007; 114(2):97–109.

Crossref  PubMed

2.Gupta A, Dwivedi T. A simplified overview of World Health Organization classification update of central nervous system tumors 2016. J Neurosci Rural Pract. Oct-Dec. 2017; 8(4):629-641.

Crossref  PubMed

3.Biswasm J, Manim B, Shaunmugen M. Retinoblastoma in adults: report of three cases and review of the literature. Surv Ophthalmol. 2000 Mar-Apr;44(5):409-14.

Crossref  PubMed

4.Mackley R.A. Retinoblastoma in a 52-year old man. Arch Ophthalmol. 1963 Mar;69:325-7.

Crossref  PubMed

5.Takahahi T, Namura S, Inoue M., Isayama Y, Sashikata T. Retinoblastoma in a 26-year old adult. Ophthalmology. 1983 Feb;90(2):179-83.

Crossref  PubMed

6.Vit VV. [Pathology of the eye, ocular adnexa and orbit: a two-volume monograph]. Vol. 2. Odesa: Astroprint; 2019. Russian.

7.Shields JA, Eagle RC, Jr, Shields CL, Marr BP. Aggressive retinal astrocytomas in four patients with tuberous sclerosis complex. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 2004;102:139-47; discussion 147-8.

8.Vit VV. [Visual system tumors: a two-volume monograph]. Vol. 2. Odesa: Astroprint; 2009. Russian.

9.Louis DN, Perry A, Wesseling P, et al. The 2021 WHO Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System: a summary. Neuro Oncol. 2021;23(8):1231-1251.

Crossref  PubMed

10.Schabadasch A. Intramurale nervengeflechte des darmrohrs. Z Zellforsch Mikrosk Anat. 1930;10:320–85.


11.Gargin V, Radutny R, Titova G, Bibik D, Kirichenko A, Bazhenov O. Application of the computer vision system for evaluation of pathomorphological images. In: Proceedings of the IEEE 40th International Conference on Electronics and Nanotechnology, ELNANO 2020. 22-24 April 2020, Kyiv, Ukraine. 469-73.


12.Garancher A, Lin CY, Morabito M, et al. NRL and CRX Define Photoreceptor Identity and Reveal Subgroup-Specific Dependencies in Medulloblastoma. Cancer Cell. 2018;33(3):435-449.e6.

Crossref  PubMed

13.Stenzinger A, Alber M, Allgäuer M, et al. Artificial intelligence and pathology: From principles to practice and future applications in histomorphology and molecular profiling. Semin Cancer Biol. 2022 Sep;84:129-43.

Crossref  PubMed

14.Sulym H, Lyndin M, Sulym L, et al. Detection of melanin in the rat skin. Pol Merkur Lekarski. 2022;50(295):21-4.

15.Lytvynenko M, Shkolnikov V, Bocharova T, Sychova L, Gargin V. Peculiarities of proliferative activity of cervical squamous cancer in HIV infection. Georgian Med News. 2017;(270):10-15.

16.Goto H, Yamakawa N, Komatsu H. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry of choroidal melanocytoma demonstrated by local resection: A case report. Am J Ophthalmol Case Rep. 2021;23:101147.

Crossref  PubMed



Received 14.04.2022

Accepted 02.12.2022 

Corresponding author: Артьомов Олександр Валентинович – art_onkol@ukr.net 

Disclaimer. The authors declare that the opinions expressed in the article are their own and not the official positions of the institution.

Conflict of interest. The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest that could influence their opinion on the subject matter or materials described and discussed in this manuscript.

Sources of support: none.