Received: 26 December  2018; Published on-line: 28 February 2018 

Automated Static Perimetry for diagnostics of visual field defects in glaucoma

S.B. Slobodyanyk, Cand. Med. Sc.

Filatov Institute of Eye Diseases and Tissue Therapy of NAMS of Ukraine; Odessa (Ukraine)

E-mail:  svsvet@gmail.com

TO CITE THIS ARTICLE: Slobodyanyk SB. Automated Static Perimetry for diagnostics of visual field defects in glaucoma. J.ophthalmol.(Ukraine).2019;1:65-72.http://doi.org/10.31288/oftalmolzh201916571


Progression of glaucomatous optic neuropathy results in the development of specific visual field defects, which dictates the need for careful visual field testing in glaucoma patients in addition to monitoring intraocular pressure and the optic disc. Automated perimetry has made it possible to increase significantly the accuracy of visual field measurements and to simplify the examination and da   ta evaluation. And built-in statistical packages have allowed for detection of minimal defects of visual fields and to predict the progression of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. 

The paper describes the basic principles of standard automated perimetry, variants of data reports and interpretation performance through the example of the Humphrey Visual Field Analyzer (Сarl Zeiss). Reliability indices, quantitative visual field indices (MD, PSD, and VFI) and their practical use for perimetry diagnostics of glaucomatous defects are described. Also, there are defined visual field defects, common for glaucoma. Finally, the paper describes how to use Guided Progression Analysis to follow up visual fields with the course of time and to detect statistically significant progression of visual field loss.

Keywords: Automated Static Perimetry, Humphrey, glaucoma


1.Qasimov E.M., Ibrahimova. S.N., Efendiyeva M.E., Agayeva F.A. [Advantages of humphrey perimeter in the diagnosis and monitoring of glaucoma (literature review)] // Oftalmologiya. Elmi-praktik jurnal. 2015;3:130–6. Russian. 

2.Kurysheva NI. [Perimetry in diagnostics of glaucomatous optic neuropathy]. M.; 2015. Russian.

3.Mukhamadeev RA. [Present-day automated perimetry]. Vestn Oftalmol. 2002 Jul-Aug;118(4):50-3. Russian.

4.Serdyukova SA, Simakova SA. [Computer Perimetry in the diagnosis of primary open-angle glaucoma]. A Serdyukova, Svetlana & L Simakova, Irina. (2018). Computer perimetry in the diagnosis of primary open-angle glaucoma. Ophthalmology journal. 11. 54-65. 10.17816/OV11154-65.


5.Alencar LM, Medeiros FA. The role of standard automated perimetry and newer functional methods for glaucoma diagnosis and follow-up. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2011;59: S53-58.

Crossref   PubMed

6.Asman P, Heijl A. Glaucoma Hemifield Test. Automated visual field evaluation.  Arch Ophthalmol. 1992;110:812-9.

Crossref   PubMed 

7.Bengtsson B, Heijl A. A visual field index for calculation of glaucoma rate of progression. Am J Ophthalmol. 2008;145:343–53.

Crossref   PubMed 

8.Choplin NT, Lundy DC. Atlas of glaucoma. Second Edition. - Informa UK Ltd, 2007.  343 р.

9.Flammer J. The concept of visual field indices./ Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 1986;224:389–92.

Crossref   PubMed 

10.Flammer J, Drance SM, Augustiny L, Funkhouser A. Quantification of glaucomatous visual field defects with automated perimetry. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1985;26:176–81.

11.Gloor BP. Franz Fankhauser: the father of the automated perimeter. Surv Ophthalmol. 2009;54 (3):417-25. 

Crossref   PubMed  

12.Heijl А, Patella VM, Bengtsson B. The Field Analyzer Primer: Effective Perimetry. Dublin: Carl Zeiss Meditec Inc; 2012.

13.Hejl A, Patella VM. Essential Perimetry.  The Field Analyzer Primer. Third edition. Carl Zeiss Meditec Inc., 2002. 164 p.

14.Humphrey Field Analyzer. II-i series System Software Version 5.1. User Manual. Carl Zeiss Meditec, Inc., 2012.

15.Imaging and Perimetric Society Standarts and Guidelines 2010. Available at: http://www.perimetry.org/GEN-INFO/standards/IPS-Standards-2010.HTM

16.Johnson CA, Adams AJ, Casson EJ, et al. Progression of early glaucomatous visual field loss as detected by blue-on-yellow and standard white-on-white automated perimetry. Arch Ophthalmol. 1993;111:651–656.

Crossref   PubMed 

17.Johnson ChA, Wall M, Thompson HS. A History of Perimetry and Visual Field Testing. Optometry and Vision Science. 2011;88(1):Е8-Е15.  

Crossref   PubMed  

18.Kahook MY, Noecker RJ. How Do You Interpret a 24-2 Humphrey Visual Field Printout? Glaucoma Today. 2007; November/December: 57-62.

19.Nathan J. Hippocrates of the to Duke-Elder: an overview history of glaucoma. Clin  Exp Optom. 2000;83(3):116-8.

Crossref    PubMed  

20.Schiefer U, Patzold J, Dannheim F, Artes P, Hart W. Conventional Perimetry. Part I: Introduction – Basic Terms. Der Ophthalmologe. 2005;102(6):627-46. 

Crossref   PubMed   

21.Visual fields: examination and interpretation / edited by Thomas J. Walsh. 3rd ed.  Oxford University Press, 2011. 312 p.

22.Wani JS, Mohd. Sajid Mir, Nasti AR. Automated Perimetry – Interpreting. JK-Practitioner. 2005;12(4):219-23.

23.Weijland A, Fankhauser F, Bebie H, Flammer J. Automated Perimetry. Visual Field Digest. - Fifth Edition. 2004. 198 р.

24.Weinreb R, Greve E, editors. Progression 8th consensus report of the world glaucoma Amsterdam: Kugler Publications; 2011.