Received: 17.10.2022; Accepted: 31.10.2022; Published on-line: 15.11.2022

Psychological testing of individuals in stressful situations: test-taking attitudes and perception of visual stimuli

B. V. Biron 1, I. A. Bulakh 1, O. O. Volkova 1, D. F. Olkhovskyi 1,  V. S. Rodin

1 Odessa I.I. Mechnikov National University; Odesa (Ukraine)

2 University of Nova Gorica; (Slovenia)

TO CITE THIS ARTICLE: Biron BV, Bulakh IA, Volkova OO, Olkhovskyi DF, Rodin VS. Role of polymorphisms of folate-cycle enzymes in diabetic retinopathy progression in patients with type 2 diabetic mellitus. J.ophthalmol.(Ukraine).2022;5: 71-80. http://doi.org/10.31288/oftalmolzh202257180

Background: Professional activities of individuals under stressful conditions affect their psychic processes and capability to work. The social-cognitive distortions developing under these conditions require a comprehensive assessment involving, particularly, quantitative assessment. The relevant psychometric instruments for detecting these distortions should be carefully psychometrically adapted.

Purpose: To analyze psychometrically the scales for assessing the test-taking attitudes in individuals under stressful situations, and to determine associations between response distortions and perceptual distortions.

Material and Methods: The study sample consisted of 286 eye care workers from the Filatov Institute of Eye Diseases and Tissue Therapy. The study was conducted with the use of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory by Hathaway and McKinley and Wartegg Drawing Completion Test.

Results: We found that in stressful situations, social-cognitive distortions are accompanied by visual perceptual distortions. Particularly, we found that the desire of the responder to appear in a socially better light than he or she actually is, is associated with the tendency of faulty ignorance of large visual stimuli, which may be considered as co-manifestations of selective visual perception and response distortions. In addition, distortions in stressful situations were associated with both conscious and unconscious levels of psyche. We believe the modified L scale may be used in practice for assessing perceptual distortions and stress-related disorders like psychosomatic disorders and post-traumatic stress disorders.

Keywords: validity scales, psychometric analysis, stress, stressful situations, ophthalmologists, social and cognitive attitudes, visual perception



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Modified L Scale

1. Once in a while, I laugh at a dirty joke. (R)

2. I cross the street in the wrong place when I am sure that the policeman will not notice me. (R)

3. Sometimes when I am not well I am irritable. (R)

4. I do not always tell the truth. (R)

6. At times I feel like swearing. (R)

6. I dislike some of the people I know. (R)

7. Once in a while I think of things too bad to talk about. (R)

8. I gossip a little at times. (R)

9. Once in a while I put off until tomorrow what I ought to do today. (R)

Note: Items with R are reverse scored.



Corresponding Author: B. V. Biron, Email:  biron@i.ua

Author Contribution: Development/conceptualization: Biron B.V.; Data collection/research: Bulak I.A., Volkova O.O., Olhovskyi D.F., Rodin V.S.; Data analysis/interpretation: Biron B.V., Rodin V.S.; Manuscript preparation/writing/reviewing: Biron B.V., Bulak I.A., Volkova O.O., Olkhovskyi D.F.

Sources of Support: There are no external sources of funding.

Declaration of Conflict of Interest: All authors have no actual or potential conflict of interest (financial, personal, professional, or other interests) that could affect the subject or material described and discussed in this manuscript.