J.ophthalmol.(Ukraine).2021;6:56-63.

http://doi.org/10.31288/10.31288/oftalmolzh202165663

Received: 15 July 2021; Published on-line: 21 December 2021


Sympathetic uveitis in children: a case report and literature review

N. F. Bobrova, S. A. Tronina, O. V. Ivanytska, L. M. Velychko, O. V. Artiomov, A. V. Bogdanova

SI "The Filatov Institute of Eye Diseases and Tissue Therapy of the NAMS of Ukraine"; Odesa (Ukraine)

E-mail: filatov.detskoe7@gmail.com

Background: Sympathetic ophthalmia is a rare autoimmune disease that presents as a bilateral granulomatous uveitis following a traumatic event or, less commonly, uniocular surgery.

Purpose: To describe immunohistological and histomorphological data of a child who developed sympathetical ophthalmia in a healthy eye after a severe penetrating corneoscleral injury with contusion component.

Material and Methods: We present clinical observation data of a boy of 6.5 years who developed sympathetic ophthalmia in the left eye 1.5 months after a penetrating ocular injury caused by a tree branch resulted in a severe corneoscleral laceration in the right eye.

Types of treatment and data of clinical, imaging (ultrasound scanning and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT)), pathohistological and immunological studies were described and reviewed.

Conclusion: A high index of clinical suspicion and careful monitoring of the state of not only a traumatized eye, but also the fellow eye both in the early and late period after traumatic event are vital to ensure identification of initial signs of sympathetic inflammation (photophobia and tearing) and taking prompt adequate measures for the prevention of further development of sympathetic inflammation. The use of current imaging modalities (including ultrasound scanning and especially SD-OCT of the retina and optic nerve) enables early documentation of the initial signs of sympathetic inflammation. Further research is warranted to develop the targeted treatment methods that would take into account the components of the immunopathogenesis

Keywords: sympathetic ophthalmia, trauma, children

 

References

1.Kumar K., Mathai A., Murthy S.I. Sympathetic ophthalmia in pediatric age group: clinical features and challenges in management in a tertiary center in Southern India. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2014 Oct;22(5):367-72.

Crossref   PubMed

2.Bobrova NF. [Reconstructive eye surgery in children]. Odessa: Phoenix; 2013. Russian.

3.Arkhipova LT. [On the frequency of sympathetic ophthalmia. Myth and reality]. Russian Ophthalmological Journal. 2016; 9 (3): 95-100. Russian.

4.Albert DM, Diaz-Rohena R. A historical review of sympathetic ophthalmia and its epidemiology. Surv Ophthalmol. 1989; 34 (1):1–14.

Crossref  

5.Zaharia MA, Lamarche J, Laurin M. Sympathetic uveitis 66 years after injury. Can J Ophthalmol. 1984 Aug;19(5):240-3.

6.Williams AM, Shepler AM, Chu ChT, Nischal KK.  Sympathetic ophthalmia presenting 5 days after penetrating injury. Am J Ophthalmol Case Rep. 2020 Jul 9;19:100816. doi: 10.1016/j.ajoc.2020.100816. eCollection 2020 Sep.

Crossref   PubMed 

7.Chu XK, Chan Chi-Chao.  Sympathetic ophthalmia: to the twenty-first century and beyond. J Ophthalmic Inflamm Infect. 2013 Jun 1;3(1):49.

Crossref   PubMed

8.Goto H, Rao NA. Sympathetic ophthalmia and Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome. Int Ophthalmol Clin. Fall 1990;30(4):279-85.

Crossref   PubMed

9.Marak Jr GE. Sympathetic uveitis. In: Yanoff M, Duker JS, editors. 2nd ed. Mosby: St.Louis; 2004: 1205–8.

10.Chu DS, Foster CS. Sympathetic ophthalmia. Int Ophthalmol Clin. Summer 2002;42(3):179-85.

Crossref   PubMed

11.Kilmartin DJ, Dick AD, Forrester JV. Prospective surveillance of sympathetic ophthalmia in the UK and Republic of Ireland. Br J Ophthalmol. 2000 Mar;84(3):259-63.

Crossref   PubMed

12.Su DH, Chee SP. Sympathetic ophthalmia in Singapore: new trends in an old disease. Graef Arch Clin Exp. 2006 Feb;244(2):243-7.

Crossref   PubMed

13.Ahmad N, Soong TK, Salvi S, Rudle PA, Rennie IG. Sympathetic ophthalmia after ruthenium plaque brachytherapy. Br J Ophthalmol. 2007; 91 (3):399–401.

Crossref   PubMed

14.Arevalo JF, Garcia RA, Al-Dhibi HA, Sanchez JG, Suarez-Tata L. Update on sympathetic ophthalmia. Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol. 2012 Jan-Mar; 19(1): 13–21.

Crossref   PubMed

15.Bechrakis NE, Muller-Stolzenburg NW, Helbig H, Foerster MH. Sympathetic ophthalmia following laser cyclocoagulation. Arch Ophthalmol. 1994 Jan;112(1):80-4.

Crossref   PubMed

16.Brour J, Desjardins L, Lehoang P, Bodaghi B, Lumbroso-Lerouic L, Dendale R, Cassoux N. Sympathetic ophthalmia after proton beam irradiation for choroidal melanoma. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2012; 20 (4):273–6.

Crossref   PubMed

17.Lubin JR, Albert DM, Weinstein M. Sixty-five years of sympathetic ophthalmia. A clinicopathologic review of 105 cases (1913–1978). Ophthalmology. 1980 Feb;87(2):109-21.

Crossref 

18.Castiblanco C, Adelman RA. Imaging for sympathetic ophthalmia: impact on the diagnosis and management. Int Ophthalmol Clin. Fall 2012;52(4):173-81.

Crossref   PubMed

19.Damico FM, Kiss S, Young LH. Sympathetic ophthalmia. Semin Ophthalmol. Jul-Sep 2005;20(3):191-7.

Crossref   PubMed

20.Chan RV, Seiff BD, Lincoff HA, Coleman DJ. Rapid recovery of sympathetic ophthalmia with treatment augmented by intravitreal steroids. Retina. 2006 Feb;26(2):243-7.

Crossref   PubMed

21.Elschnig A. Studies on sympathetic ophthalmia, II: the antigenic effect of eye pigments. Graef Arch Clin Exp. 1910; 3: 365–456.

22.de Kozak Y, Sakai J, Thillaye B, Faure JP. S antigen-induced experimental autoimmune uveo-retinitis in rats. Curr Eye Res. 1981;1(6):327-37.

Crossref   PubMed

23.Schalken JJ, Winkens HJ, Van Vugt AH, De Grip WJ, Broekhuyse RM. Rhodopsin-induced experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis in monkeys. Br J Ophthalmol. 1989 Mar;73(3):168-72.

Crossref   PubMed

24.Gery I, Wiggert B, Redmond TM, Kuwabara T, Crawford MA, Vistica BP, Chader GJ. Uveoretinitis and pinealitis induced by immunization with interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein. Invest Ophth Vis Sci. 1986 Aug;27(8):1296-300.

25.Gery I, Chanaud NP 3rd, Anglade E. Recoverin is highly uveitogenic in Lewis rats. Invest Ophth Vis Sci. 1994 Jul;35(8):3342-5.

26.Shindo Y, Ohno S, Usui M, Ideta H, Harada K, Masuda H, Inoko H. Immunogenetic study of sympathetic ophthalmia. Tissue Antigens. 1997 Feb;49(2):111-5.

Crossref   PubMed

27.Bilyk JR. Enucleation, evisceration, and sympathetic ophthalmia. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2000 Oct;11(5):372-86.

Crossref   PubMed

28.Chaithanyaa N, Devireddy SK, Kishore Kumar RV, Gali RS, Aneja V. Sympathetic ophthalmia: a review of literature. Oral Surg Oral Med Oeal pathol Oral Radiol. 2012 Feb;113(2):172-6.

Crossref   PubMed

29.Galor A, Davis JL, Flynn HW Jr, Feuer WJ, Dubovy SR, Setlur V, et al. Sympathetic ophthalmia: incidence of ocular complications and vision loss in the sympathizing eye. Am J Ophthalmol. 2009 Nov;148(5):704-710.e2.

Crossref   PubMed

30.Phan LT, Hwang TN, McCulley TJ. Evisceration in the modern age. Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol. 2012 Jan-Mar; 19(1): 24–33.

Crossref   PubMed

31.du Toit N, Motala MI, Richards J, Murray AD, Maitra S. The risk of sympathetic ophthalmia following evisceration for penetrating eye injuries at Groote Schuur Hospital. Br J Ophthalmol. 2008 Jan;92(1):61-3.

Crossref   PubMed

32.Khramenko NI, Gaidamaka TB, Drozhzhyna GI, Velychko LN, Bogdanova AV. ICAM-1 expression on blood lymphocytes in patients with stromal herpes keratitis at different periods of disease. J Ophthalmol (Ukraine). 2020; 3: 23-8. Russian.

Crossref


Conflict of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest which could influence their opinions on the subject or the materials presented in the manuscript.