Investigating the protective capacity of polymethylsiloxane polyhydrate against chromium (VI)-induced neurotoxicity of the rat optic nerve
O. V. Kuzenko 1, Y. A. Dyomin 1, E. V. Kuzenko 2
1 Kharkiv Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education; Kharkiv (Ukraine)
2 Medical Institute of Sumy State Univercity; Sumy (Ukraine)
TO CITE THIS ARTICLE: Kuzenko OV, Dyomin YA, Kuzenko EV. Investigating the protective capacity of polymethylsiloxane polyhydrate against chromium (VI)-induced neurotoxicity of the rat optic nerve. J.ophthalmol.(Ukraine).2021;1:62-69. http://doi.org/10.31288/oftalmolzh202116269
Background: Toxic optic neuropathy commonly develops in the presence of exogenous factors. With progression of the process, acute or chronic progressive death of retinal ganglion cells and their axons develops, leading to partial or total optic atrophy with visual function loss. Investigation of the effect of chromium (VI) on the optic nerve and evaluation of potential pathogenetic treatments of this effect are deemed relevant because of the global environmental crisis associated with pollution from chromium.
Purpose: To examine chromium (VI)-induced morphological changes in the rat optic nerve and to experimentally assess the efficacy of polymethylsiloxane polyhydrate (PMSPH) for correction of induced changes.
Material and Methods: Seventy two white outbred adult male rats were distributed in three groups (24 animals each) given water ad libitum. Animals in group 1 (a control group) were intact and given normal drinking water. Those in group 2 were given chromium (VI) (K2Cr2O7)-enriched (0.02 mol/L) drinking water but not Enterosgel. Animals in group 3 were given K2Cr2O7-enriched (0.02 mol/L) drinking water and treated with oral Enterosgel (0.8 mg/kg). Animals were decapitated under ether anesthesia and the intracranial optic nerve was harvested at three time points (20, 40 and 60 days after initiation of the experiment), and changes in the optic nerve were assessed by histomorphology and electron microscopy.
Results: Histomorphology found disrupted and fragmented nerve fibers, edematous connective tissue septa, and diffuse cellular gliosis in day-60 intracranial optic nerve specimens obtained from animals given chromium (VI)-enriched drinking water and not treated with Enterosgel. In addition, there was scanning electron microscopy evidence of electrolyte disbalance and accumulation of chromium (VI). Treatment with Enterosgel completely inhibited the effect of chromium (VI) on the rat optic nerve at days 20 and 40, and we observed only minimal consequences of discirculatory changes in day-60 specimens obtained from animals given chromium (VI)-enriched drinking water and treated with Enterosgel.
Keywords: chromium (VI), experiment, toxicity, optic nerve, Enterosgel, scanning electron microscope
1.Tong S, Li H, Wang L, Tudi, M. Concentration, Spatial Distribution, Contamination Degree and Human Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Urban Soils across China between 2003 and 2019 - A Systematic Review. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Apr 29;17(9):3099.
2.Tytła M. Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution and Potential Ecological Risk in Sewage Sludge from Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant Located in the Most Industrialized Region in Poland-Case Study. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 Jul 9;16(13):2430.
3.Stetsenko DO, Dolin VV. [Heavy metals in soils of radiocontaminated forest environmental systems]. Poshukova ta ekologichna geokhimiia. 2009;9:42-7. Ukrainian.
4.Biletska EM, Onul NM, Golovkova TA, et al. [Environment- and hygiene-based determinacy of deterioration of health for population of industrial region]. 2016;4:14-8. Ukrainian.
5.Rahman Z, Singh VP. The relative impact of toxic heavy metals (THMs) (arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr(VI)), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb)) on the total environment: an overview. Environ Monit Assess. 2019 Jun 8;191(7):419.
6.Junaid M, Hashmi MZ, Malik RN, et al. Toxicity and oxidative stress induced by chromium in workers exposed from different occupational settings around the globe: A review. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2016 Oct;23(20):20151-20167.
7.World’s Worst Pollution Problems 2015. Available at:https://www.greencross.ch/wp-content/uploads/uploads/media/pollution_rep...
8.Vasyuta VA. [Medical and social substantiation of the system of medical care for patients with optic nerve atrophy]. [Extended Abstract of Dissertation for the Degree of Dr Sc (Med)]. Kyiv, 2015. Ukrainian.
9.Vennam S, Georgoulas S, Khawaja A, et al. Heavy metal toxicity and the aetiology of glaucoma. Eye (Lond). 2020 Jan; 34(1):129-37.
10.Lin S-C, Singh K, Lin SC. Association Between Body Levels of Trace Metals and Glaucoma Prevalence. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2015 Oct;133(10):1144-50.
11.Jung SJ, Lee SH. Association between Three Heavy Metals and Dry Eye Disease in Korean Adults: Results of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Korean J Ophthalmol. 2019 Feb;33(1):26-35.
12.Wills NK, Kalariya N, Sadagopa Ramanujam VM, et al.. Human retinal cadmium accumulation as a factor in the etiology of age-related macular degeneration. Exp Eye Res. 2009; 89: 79-87.
13.Apel W, Stark D, Stark A, et al. Cobalt-chromium toxic retinopathy case study. J Doc Ophthalmol. 2013 Feb;126(1):69–78.
14.Ng SK, Ebneter A, Gilhotra JS. Hip-implant related chorio-retinal cobalt toxicity. Indian J Ophthalmol. Jan-Feb 2013;61(1):35-7.
15.Garcia MD, Hur M, Chen JJ, et al. Cobalt toxic optic neuropathy and retinopathy: Case report and review of the literature. Am J Ophthalmol Case Rep. 2020 Jan 25;17:100606.
16.Vashkulat NP. Establish levels of heavy metals in soils in Ukraine. Environ Health. 2002;2:44–6.
17.Enterosgel reference data: https://compendium.com.ua/info/45247/enterosgel_/?gclid=Cj0KCQiAhs79BRD0...
18.Rybolovlev IuR, Rybolovlev RS. [Dosing substances for mammals based on biological activity constants]. Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR. 1979;247(6):1513-6. Russian.
19.Salama A, Hegazy R, Hassan A. Intranasal Chromium Induces Acute Brain and Lung Injuries in Rats: Assessment of Different Potential Hazardous Effects of Environmental and Occupational Exposure to Chromium and Introduction of a Novel Pharmacological and Toxicological Animal Model. PLoS One. 2016; 11(12): e0168688.
20.Duckett S. Abnormal deposits of chromium in the pathological human brain. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1986 Mar; 49(3): 296–301.
21.Fang Z, Zhao M, Zhen H, et al. Genotoxicity of tri- and hexavalent chromium compounds in vivo and their modes of action on DNA damage in vitro. PLoS One. 2014 Aug 11;9(8):e103194.
22.Xiao F, Li Y, Dai L, et al. Hexavalent chromium targets mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I to induce reactive oxygen species-dependent caspase-3 activation in L-02 hepatocytes. Int J Mol Med. 2012 Sep;30(3):629-35.
23.Sun H, Brocato J, Costa M. Oral Chromium Exposure and Toxicity. Curr Environ Health Rep. 2015 Sep;2(3):295-303.
24.Velichkovskiĭ BT. Vestn Ross Akad Med Nauk. 2001;(6):45-52. [Free radical oxidation as a link of early and prolonged adaptation to environmental factors]. Russian.
25.Kurutas EB. The importance of antioxidants which play the role in cellular response against oxidative/nitrosative stress: current state. Nutr J. 2016 Jul 25;15(1):71.
26.Kotyzová D, Hodková A, Bludovská M, et al. Effect of chromium (VI) exposure on antioxidant defense status and trace element homeostasis in acute experiment in rat. Toxicol Ind Health. 2015 Nov;31(11):1044-50.
27.Patlolla AK, Barnes C, Yedjou C, et al. Oxidative stress, DNA damage, and antioxidant enzyme activity induced by hexavalent chromium in Sprague-Dawley rats. Environ Toxicol. 2009;24(1):66-73.
28.Mary Momo CM, Ferdinand N, Omer Bebe NK, et al. Oxidative Effects of Potassium Dichromate on Biochemical, Hematological Characteristics, and Hormonal Levels in Rabbit Doe (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Vet Sci. 2019 Mar;6(1):30.
29.Bucio L, García C, Souza V. Uptake, cellular distribution and DNA damage produced by mercuric chloride in a human fetal hepatic cell line. Mutat Res. 1999 Jan 25;423(1-2):65-72.
30.Castellino N, Aloj S. Intracellular distribution of lead in the liver and kidney of the rat. Br J Ind Med. 1969 Apr;26(2):139-43.
31.Hertz L, Dienel GA. Lactate transport and transporters: general principles and functional roles in brain cells. J Neurosci Res. 2005 Jan 1-15;79(1-2):11-8.
32.Maiuolo J, Macrì R, Bava I, et al. Myelin Disturbances Produced by Sub-Toxic Concentration of Heavy Metals: The Role of Oligodendrocyte Dysfunction. Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Sep 14;20(18):4554.
33.Chin-Chan M, Navarro-Yepes J, Quintanilla-Vega B. Environmental pollutants as risk factors for neurodegenerative disorders: Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases. Front Cell Neurosci. 2015 Apr 10;9:124.
34.Nikolaiev VG, Klishch IM, Zhulkevich IV. [Using Enterosgel for prevention of oxidative stress in acute blood loss]. Visnyk naukovykh doslidzhen. 2009;8:72-4. Ukrainian.
35.Howell CA, Mikhalovsky SV, Markaryan EN, et al. Investigation of the adsorption capacity of the enterosorbent Enterosgel for a range of bacterial toxins, bile acids and pharmaceutical drugs. Sci Rep. 2019;9:5629.
The authors declare no conflict of interest which could influence their opinions on the subject or the materials presented in the manuscript.