Formation of biofilms in traumatic injuries of the ocular adnexa
O.V. Petrenko1, Dr. Sc. (Med.), Prof.; M.M. Dranko1, 2, a Postgraduate Student; V.M. Golubnycha3, Cand. Sc. (Biol.); L.V. Grytsai2, Cand.Sc. (Med.)
1 P.L. Shupyk National Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education; Kyiv (Ukraine)
2 Sumy Regional Clinical Hospital, Eye Microsurgery Department; Sumy (Ukraine)
3 Sumy State University, Medical Institute, Public Health Department; Sumy (Ukraine)
Introduction. Biofilms (microbial communities) can be formed by both pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms. The formation of biofilms causes many problems in the clinical practice as they slow down the healing process and are often characterized by antibiotic resistance.
Purpose. To study the ability of microorganisms that were obtained from the wounds of patients with traumatic injuries to the ocular adnexa to form biofilms.
Materials and Methods. 60 patients with traumatic ocular adnexal injuries were examined. The bacteriological examination of wound swabs was carried out with species composition and population levels of the microflora defined. The ability of microorganisms to form biofilms was further analyzed. The biofilm studies were performed to determine the amount of biomass generated [O'Toole and Kolter, 1998] by dyeing the biofilms with crystal violet. The method is based on the ability of the crystal violet dye to bind to cells and a matrix of biofilm. The results were interpreted according to the optical density of the dyed solvent.
Results. Seventy-five (75) strains of microorganisms were collected and identified from sixty (60) patients. Gram-positive and gram-negative microflora made up 73% (n=54) and 27% (n=20), respectively. The leading positions were taken by Staphylococcus aureus (n=21), Acinetobacter spp. (n=11), Кlebsiellа ozenae (n=8), Micrococcus spp. (n=8), Corynebacterium spp. (n=5), Artrobacter cuminsii (n=4), Staphylococcus epidermidis (n=3). The greatest ability for biofilm formation was manifested in Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter spp. and Klebsiella ozenae, which are the representatives of the opportunistic flora.
Staphylococcus aureus was most intensively forming a biofilm in the time interval from Day 1 to Day 3; Acinetobacter spp. was most active during the first day and Klebsiella ozenae – Day 3 to Day 7.
Conclusions. Most clinically relevant microorganisms that had been collected from the wounds of patients with traumatic injuries of the ocular adnexa had an ability to form microbial biofilms. This ability was most evident in Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter spp. and Klebsiella ozenae, which are the representatives of the opportunistic flora.
Keywords: biofilm, microorganisms, wound infection, ocular adnexa, crystal violet
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The authors certify that they have no conflicts of interest in the subject matter or materials discussed in this manuscript.