Prevalence of and risk factors for diabetic retinopathy in areas differing in local access to endocrinologic care
I.J. Aliyeva, Y.J. Abdiyeva
National Centre of Ophthalmology named after Acad. Zarifa Aliyeva;
TO CITE THIS ARTICLE: Aliyeva IJ, Abdiyeva YJ. Prevalence of and risk factors for diabetic retinopathy in areas differing in local access to endocrinologic care. J.ophthalmol.(Ukraine).2019;4:13-17. http://doi.org/10.31288/oftalmolzh201941317
Purpose: To investigate the prevalence of and risk factors for diabetic retinopathy in areas differing in access to endocrinologic care.
Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the Ganja-Gazakh economic region, whose administrative units differ from each other with respect to access to endocrinologic care and prevalence of type 1 diabetes mellitus and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In order to determine actual prevalence of diabetic retinopathy across the region, 479 diabetics underwent a routine examination.
Results: Diabetic retinopathy was found in 28.8±2.1% (95% CI, 24.6%–33.0%) of patients with diabetes mellitus. It was found substantially less frequently in diabetics from the city of Ganja than in those from rural settlements with no access to endocrinologic care at the local level. Non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy was the most common form of the disease (50.0±4.3%), followed by pre-proliferative and proliferative forms (34.1% and 15.9%, respectively). Pre-proliferative and proliferative forms were 2.8 times and 2.2 times, respectively, more common in the group of patients with no access to endocrinology service at the area of patient residence.
Conclusion: The difference in local access to endocrinologic care among administrative units of the region is associated with the difference in risk for and late detection of diabetic retinopathy. Gender, type of diabetes, presence of complications, duration of diabetes mellitus, and treatment regimens are important risk factors for the development of diabetic retinopathy.
Keywords: diabetic retinopathy, prevalence, risk factors
1.Thapa R, Bajimaya S, Raundyal G, et al. Population awareness of diabetic eye disease and age related macular degeneration in Nepal: the Bhaktapur Retina Study. BMC Oftalmology. 2015 Dec 29;15:188. doi: 10.1186/s12886-015-0175-z.
2.Giloyan A., Harutyunyan T., Petrosyan V. The prevalence of and major risk factors associated with diabetic retinopathy in Gegharkunik province of Armenia: cross-sectional study. BMC Oftalmology. 2015 Apr 30;15:46. doi: 10.1186/s12886-015-0032-0.
3.Acan D, Calan M, Er d, et al. The prevalence and systemic risk factors of diabetic macular edema: a cross-sectional study from Turkey. BMC Oftalmology. 2018 Apr 12;18(1):91. doi: 10.1186/s12886-018-0753-y.
4.Bertelsen G, Peto T, Lindekleiv H, Schirmer H, et al. Tromsø eye study: prevalence and risk factors of diabetic retinopathy. Acta Ophthalmol. 2013 Dec;91(8):716-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1755-3768.2012.02542.x.
5.Jee D, Lee WK, Kang S. Prevalence and risk factors for diabetic retinopathy: the Korea National Health and nutrition examination survey 2008–2011. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 Oct 17;54(10):6827-33. doi: 10.1167/iovs.13-12654.
6.Zheng Y, Lamoureux EL, Lavanya R, Wu R, Ikram MK. Prevalence and risk factors of diabetic retinopathy in migrant Indians in an urbanized society in Asia: the Singapore Indian eye study. Ophthalmology. 2012 Oct;119(10):2119-24. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2012.04.027.
7.Dehghan MH, Katibeh M, Ahmadieh H, Nourinia R, Yaseri M, et al. Prevalence and risk factors for diabetic retinopathy in the 40 to 80 year-old population in Yazd, Iran: the Yazd eye study. J Diabetes. 2015 Jan;7(1):139-41. doi: 10.1111/1753-0407.12205.
8.Thapa R, Joshi DM, Rizyal A, Maharjan N, Joshi RD. Prevalence, risk factors and awareness of diabetic retinopathy among admitted diabetic patients at a tertiary level hospital in Kathmandu. Nepal J Ophthalmol. 2014 Jan;6(11). doi: 10.3126/nepjoph.v6i1.10760.
9.Kahloun R, Jelliti B, Zaouali S, Attia S, Ben Yahia S, Khairallah M. Prevalence and causes of visual impairment in diabetic patients in Tunisia, North Africa. Eye (Lond). 2014 Aug;28(8):986-91. doi: 10.1038/eye.2014.131.
10.Mathenge W, Bastawrous A, Peto T, Leung I, Yorston D, Foster A, Kuper H. Prevalence and correlates of diabetic retinopathy in a population based survey of older people in Nakuru, Kenya. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2014 Jun;21(3):169-77. doi: 10.3109/09286586.2014.903982.
11.Sharew G, Ilako DR, Kimani K, Gelaw Y. Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in Jimma University Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia. Ethiop Med J. 2013 Apr;51(2):105-13.
12.Kaidonis G, Mills RA, Landers J, Lake SR, Burdon KP, Craig JE. Review of the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in indigenous Australians. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2014 Dec;42(9):875-82. doi: 10.1111/ceo.12338.
13.Zhu M, Tong X, Zhao R, et al. Prevalence and associated risk factors of undercorrected refractive errors cross among people with diabetes in Shanghai. BMC Oftalmology. 2017 Nov 28;17(1):220. doi: 10.1186/s12886-017-0620-2.
14.Balashevich LI, Izmailov AS, editors. [Diabetic ophthalmopathy]. S Petersburg: Chelovek; 2012. p.137-42. Russian.
15.Rykov SA, Parkhonmenko OG, Parkhonmenko EG. [Improved method of fundus photography for screening of diabetic retinopathy and maculopathy with the use of İPhone]. Oftalmol Zh. 2015;1:91-5. Russian.
16.Vorobieva IV, Merkushenkova DA. [Diabetic retinopathy in type two diabetic patients: Epidemiology and modern view on the pathogenesis. Review]. Ophthalmology in Russia. 2012;9(4):18-21. Russian.
17.Glantz S. [Medical biological statistics]. Transl. from English. Moscow: Praktika; 1998. Russian.
The authors certify that they have no conflicts of interest in the subject matter or materials discussed in this manuscript.