Received: 05 March 2019; Published on-line: 27 June 2019

Clinical and diagnostic value of impairments in electrolyte metabolism in children with acquired myopia

T.Ye. Tsybulska,1 Cand Sc (Med), S.V. Gorbachova,1 Dr Sc (Biol), T.S. Zavgorodnia,2 Cand Sc (Med)

1  Zaporizhzhia State Medical University; Zaporizhzhia (Ukraine)

2 Shupik National Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education; Kyiv (Ukraine)

E-mail: tamila.eye@gmail.com

Background: Identifying the biochemical features of the body in myopia associated with connective tissue dysplasia is still important in the ophthalmologist’s practice.

Purpose: To assess the clinical and diagnostic value of impairments in electrolyte merabolism in children with acquired myopia.

Methods: Group 1 included 30 children with mild myopia associated with the syndrome of unspecified connective tissue dysplasia (SUCTD), and Group 2 included 30 children with mild myopia without SUCTD. Group 3 (controls) included 30 pediatric healthy controls without ocular disease. Electrolyte balance was assessed by measuring magnesium, calcium, sodium, potassium and chloride ion concentrations in daily urine.

Results: Magnesium and calcium ion concentrations in daily urine in children in Group 1 were significantly (2- and 1.7-fold, respectively) lower compared with children in Group 2, and significantly (2.1- and 1.9-fold, respectively) lower compared with controls (р < 0.05). There was no difference in sodium, potassium or chloride ion concentrations in daily urine among study groups. ROC analysis found that an optimum cutoff magnesium ion concentration of ≤2.3 mmol/day in daily urine was 97% sensitive and 80% specific, with an area under curve value (AUC) of 0.97±0.12 (CI 0.95-0.99) (р < 0.0001). In addition, an optimum cutoff calcium ion concentration of ≤3.42 mmol/day in daily urine was 96% sensitive and 85% specific, with an AUC value of 0.94±0.27 (CI 0.88-0.98) (р < 0.0001). Magnesium ion concentration in daily urine was moderately negatively correlated with dysplasia severity (r= -0.65, р < 0.05), and calcium ion concentration was moderately negatively correlated with dysplasia severity (r= -0.59, р < 0.05).

Conclusion: The current study determined the diagnostic values of magnesium and calcium ion concentrations (≤ 2.3 mmol/day and ≤ 3.42 mmol/day, respectively) which can be used as biomarkers for laboratory screening for the presence of SUCTD in clinical practice.

Keywords: myopia, connective tissue dysplasia, diagnostics, electrolytes, urine, children


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The authors certify that they have no conflicts of interest in the subject matter or materials discussed in this manuscript.